Ayurvedic Studies and specialization are characterized by The School of Surgeons (Dhanvantari) and School of Physicians (Atreya). Ayurvedic Studies are categorized into eight branches as below:
Kayachikitsa (Internal Medicine) â€“ Kaya (Body) is referred to as not just the gross body, but also the subtle body, according to Ayurvedic texts. Kayachikitsa recognizes that human body is a product of psychosomatic interactions, and that diseases are caused due to imbalances of the doshas (Vata, pitta and kapha), or sometimes by the dhatu (body tissues), mala (Toxin deposits) and sometimes by the mind. Hence this branch of alternative medicine, delves deep into finding out the root cause of illness, and then recommending a suitable treatment for balancing the mind and body. Kayachikitsa always provides an opportunity to stop disease at every stage, without its full manifestation. Panchakarma, is one of the significant treatments of Kayachikitsa.
Shalya Tantra (Surgery) â€“ In contrast to modern concepts, surgery was practiced by Ayurveda in ancient India, and Shalya Tantra is a significant branch of Ayurveda. Ancient Sage-physician Susruta, in his text, Susruta Samhita, mentions sophisticated surgical methods that were practiced in India. It deals with surgical methods adopted for dealing with tumors, bone fractures, external and internal injuries, pregnancy complications and obstruction in intestinal loop. The instruments adopted included those in wood, stone and other natural materials.Â Shalya Tantra was well-accepted due to the quick relief, rather than the slow recovery through herbal medicines. Even the best known ancient Ayurvedic physician, Charaka, recommended Shalya Tantra for treating certain diseases such as hemorrhoids.
Shalakya Tantra (Ophtamology, ENT) â€“ This branch of Ayurveda deals with prognosis, diagnosis, prevention, etiology and treatment of ear, nose, throat, eye and head. This branch is so named, due to the excessive use of â€˜shalakaâ€™ which refers to a probe or a rod. This branch discusses about seventy two diseases pertaining to the eye. He also refers to various drug therapies such as glaucoma, conjunctivitis, ear diseases, nose, throat, pterygium, auroplasty and rhinoplasty. It also has simple home remedies for minor problems pertaining to mouth ulcers, migraine, eye drynessetc.
Agada Tantra (Toxicology) â€“ Agada Tantra refers to various methods of removing toxins from the body, as well as antidotes for poisons. This branch deals with a various natural toxins resulting from wild lives such as insects, animals or birds, herbs, plants, vegetables, artificial poisons, minerals, and water and air pollution. Agada Tantra describes the disadvantages of bad food habits and drugs that lead to chronic poisoning symptoms.Â This branch also provides information regarding the accurate dosages of poisons after which they are considered fatal.